As Chocolate Quest is not yet available to versions beyond 1.7.10, here are some mods that provide similar mechanics, items, or other elements that resemble Chocolate Quest:
Grappling Hook Mod Edit
There's a mod around that adds grappling hooks that work fairly similarly to the old CQ ones, including a bunch of specialized versions, like one that allows you to leap forward by Right-clicking while on the line, and an item that makes blocks repel you, which is easily the most fun movement method ever, provided you can do something about the fall damage.
The Grappling Hook mod can be found here.
Monsters and Dungeons Mod Edit
This mod is crazy WIP, currently featuring just one dungeon, with a couple mobs, an armor set, and two weapons. None of the items are obtainable, everything has development names and textures, the monsters are buggy, and yet through all of this, it still feels unequivocally like a successor to Chocolate Quest.
The Monsters and Dungeons Mod can be found here.
Recurrent Complex Edit
Though it won't give you any non-vanilla loot or enemies, Recurrent Complex does an excellent job at allowing you to create structures, possibly populated with monsters, and giving you the tools to populate the world with them. On its own it will also spawn a great number of structures, but most are focused on either being minor details for the world or just small, vanilla-like dungeons. There may already be add-ons out there that add dungeons that are similar in scale to those from Chocolate Quest for this mod, thanks to the tools included in Recurrent Complex.
Recurrent Complex can be found here.
Dungeon Tactics Edit
Another place with fairly chocolate-like dungeons, although these more in the vein of old Chocolate Quest, what with some procedural generation, and the classic spawner-on-top-of-chest gag. It adds a variety of items and mechanics that are comparable to those from Chocolate Quest. Weapons include battleaxes, glaives, hammers, cutlasses, knives, cestuses, slingshots, grenades, and other, more unique weapons. Most weapons tend to have a special niche such as the glaive's extended reach or the battleaxe's beheading effect. There are shields of various materials, including some from mods that it suports, studded leather armor, as well as jewelled and gilded gear that increase the enchantability of iron and diamond equipment. There are also utility items such as duct tape for item repair or the piston glove, a portable piston that moves one block. Alchemy and magic are also mechanics. One can find scrolls to cast spells as well as enchant armor to make spellcasting less costly. The variety of weapons and unique equipment in this mod is very much alike Chocolate Quest.
This mod has a handful of features besides dungeons and equipment. You can read more about them and find the mod here.
ToroQuest is a mod which adds new entities, structures, dungeons, and civilizations to the world.
There are several different civilizations, and each village that spawns will randomly be assigned to one. The player may do quests for NPCs found in new village structures in order to increase their reputation with the village's respective faction. Planting crops, breeding livestock, and killing mobs are some of the ways reputation is increased. Killing animals, residents, or destroying crops are some of the ways one decreases their reputation. Reputation level changes aspects of the game - as your reputation increases, the prices of items that you buy from the a village's shopkeeper decrease. Guards will attack on sight should your reputation fall too low with their faction.
New weapons include Obsidian Swords, Fire Swords, and Diamond Battle Axes. Each of those weapons can be purchased with a high enough reputation from village shopkeepers. New armors include Samurai Armor, Royal Armor, and Toro armor, which unfortunately do not have their location mentioned on the ToroQuest wiki.
ToroQuest adds several dungeons as well as bosses for their respective dungeons.
ToroQuest can be found here.